Skip to main content

Full text of "Proposals for uniting the English colonies on the continent of America [microform] : so as to enable them to act with force and vigour against their enemies"

See other formats




^ >^. 

// <y^^ 



|5o ■^~ mH 
■^ IM 12.2 




1.25 ||U 




6" - 


<^ '' >^ 









WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(716) 872-4503 

^ <fl^ 





Collection de 

Canadian Institute for Historical IMicroraproductions / Institut Canadian de microreproductions historiques 


Technical and Bibliographic Notaa/Notas tachniquaa at bibliographiquaa 

Tha Instituta haa attamptad to obtain tha baat 
original copy available for filming. Faaturaa of thia 
copy which may t>a bibliographically unique, 
which may alter any of tha imagea in the 
reproduction, or which may aignificantly change 
the uauai method of filming, are checked below. 







Coloured cover*/ 
Couverture de couleur 

I I Cover* damaged/ 

Couverture endommagAe 

Cover* reatored and/or laminated/ 
Couverture reataurAe et/ou pelliculAe 

I I Cover title mi**ing/ 

Le titre de couverture manque 

Coloured map*/ 

Cartes giographiqua* en couleur 

Coloured ink (i.e. other than blue or black)/ 
Encre de couleur (i.e. autre que bleue ou noire) 

Coloured plate* and/or illuatration*/ 
Planche* et/ou iliuetration* en couleur 

Bound with other material/ 
Relit avac d'autres document* 

r~7| Tight binding may cauae ahadow* or d^atortion 

along interior margin/ 

La re iiure aerrte peut cauaar de I'ombre ou de la 

diatortion le long de la marge inttrieure 

Blank leave* added during reatoration may 
appear within the text. Whenever poaaible, theae 
have been omitted from filming/ 
II *e peut que certainea pagea blanche* ajouttea 
lor* d'une reatauration apparai**ent dana le texte. 
mala, ioraque cela Atait pooaibia, ce* pagea n'ont 
pas 6ti fiimtea. 

Additional commanta:/ 
Commentairea *uppl6mentaire*: 



L'ln*titut a microfilm^ le meilleur exemplaira 
qu'il lui a AtA poaaible de ae procurer. Lea detail* 
de cet exemplaira qui aont paut-Atre unique* du 
point de vue bibliographique, qui peuvent modifier 
une image reproduite. ou qui peuvent exiger une 
modification dana la mAthode normale de filmage 
aont indiquia ci-de**ou*. 

I I Coloured page*/ 


Page* de couleur 

Page* damaged/ 
Pagea andommagia* 

□ Pagea reatored and/or laminated/ 
Page* reetaurte* et/ou peiliculAe* 

Page* diacoioured, *tained or foxed/ 
Page* d6coiorAe*, tachatie* ou piqudes 







I I Page* detached/ 

Page* ditachtes 


Quality of prir 

Qualit* intgale de rimpre**lon 

include* *upplementary materi{ 
Comprend du materiel suppitmantaire 

Only edition available/ 
Seule Edition diaponible 

r~~^ Showthrough/ 

r~/n Quality of print varie*/ 

I I include* *upplementary material/ 

r~1 Only edition available/ 







Pagea wholly or partially obacurad by errata 
aiip*, ti**ue*. etc., have been refilmed to 
enaure the be*t po**ible image/ 
Lea pagea totalement ou partiellament 
obacurcie* par un feuillet d'errata, une peiure, 
etc., ont M filmte* it nouveau da fafon A 
obtenir la -?ieilleure image po**ible. 

This item i* filmed at the reduction ratio checked below/ 

Ce document eat filmt au taux Je reduction indiqu6 ci-deaaoua. 

10X 14X 18X 22X 















The copy filmed hero has been reproduced thanks 
to the generosity of: 

Library of the Public 
Archives of Canada 

The iffiages appearing here are the best quality 
possible considering the condition and legibility 
of the original copy and in Iceeping with the 
filming contract specifications. 

Original copies In printed paper covers are filmed 
beginning with the front cover and ending on 
the last page with a printed or illustrated impres- 
sion,, or the back cover when appropriate. All 
other original copies are filmed beginning on the 
first page with a printed or Illustrated impres- 
sion, and ending on the last page with a printed 
or illustrated impression. 

L'exemplaire fllnr., .*ut reproduit grAce A la 
gintrosit* de: 

La bibliothdque des Archives 
pubiiques du Canada 

Lm images suivantes ont At* reproduites avec ie 
plus grand soin, compte tenu de la condition et 
de ia nettetA de l'exemplaire film*, et en 
conformity avec ies conditions du contrat de 

Les exemplaires originaux dont ia couverture en 
papier est imprimie sont filmte en commenpant 
par Ie premier plat et en terminant soit par la 
dernlAre page qui comporte une empreinte 
d'Impression ou d'iilustration, soit par ie second 
plat, salon ie cas. Tous ies autres exenr^piaires 
originaux sont fiim6s en commen^ant par la 
premlAre page qui comporte une empreinte 
d'Impression ou d'iilustration et en terminant par 
ia dernlAre page qui comporte une telle 

The last recorded frame on each microfiche 
shall contain the symbol ^^ (meaning "CON- 
TINUED"), or the symbol V (meaning "END"), 
whichever applies. 

Un des symboles suivants apparaTtra sur la 
derniAre image de cheque microfiche, soion Ie 
cas: Ie symbols — ► signifie "A SUIVRE", Ie 
symbols V signifie "FIN". 

Maps, plates, charts, ate, may be filmed at 
different reduction ratios. Those too large to be 
entirely included in one exposure are filmed 
beginning in the upper left hand corner, left to 
right and top to bottom, as many frames as 
required. The following diagrams Illustrate the 

Les cartes, planches, tableaux, etc., peuvent Atre 
fllm6s A des taux de reduction diffirents. 
Lorsque ie document est trop grand pour Atre 
reproduit en un seui cllchA, 11 est film* A partir 
de Tangle supArieur gauche, de gauche A droite, 
et de haut en bas, en prenant ie nombre 
d'images nAcessaire. Les diagrammes suivants 
iliustrent la mAthode. 


















)IV^- frS 


For Uniting the 



Continent of America 

So as to enable them to ad with Force 
and Vigour agaihft their Enemies. 

LONDON: • " 

Printed for J. W I L K I E, behind the Chapter- Houfi, In ' 

St. Paul*: Church-yard. C ^ 





T. *, '■> i 



<4" S. 

V *I.:^ **A *•■* 


i n 


V . ■ I 

f '■' .^ ^,/''■.^i ^'-r' ".''^t <tfi'**''** 


, •I' ■ -! • 

P R E F A C E. 

l\: m^S'i ^i'y'^ -f ..I'Wu'a !..^ 

' K» . ;j. 

LTHO' in the following Dif- 
courfe the Author treats princi- 
pally of fuch Matters as relate to 
America, yet as they have feme 
Connection with a Treat! fe lately publiflied, 
intituled, 7'/'^ Fatal Confequences of the PFant cf 
Syjlem in the ConduSi ofPublick Affairs, it may 
not be improper to explain fome Particulars, 
in which the Intention of the faid Eflay feems 
to have been mifunderllood. " '" . 

'«. j": X'» 

j\ 2- 




( ii ) 

It has been made a Queftion how the iirft 
Principles of the Conftitution can confift in a 
Renewal of the Syftem of the Publick Boards ? 

T o which he anfwers, that the Preferva- 

tion of the Rights and Privileges of the Subject 
confifts principally in the Union or Harmony 
of the three great Powers which form the 
Commonwealth, viz. King, Lords, and Com- 
mons i and that the Strength and Vigour of the 
Government depend wholly upon the proper 
Exercife of the Regal Power, which again de- 
pends not only upon the due Adminiftration 
of Juftice, but alfo in a great Meafure upon 
a ftridl Adherence to the antient Rules ,or Syf-». 
tem of the Publick Boarcjs. So that in this 
Refpedt the Syftem of the Publick Boards is to 
be confideVed as one of the firft Principles of 
the Conftitution, upon which the Unity of 
Aftion, or the uniform Profecution of Bufinefs, 
wholly depends. As in a Watch, if any of the 
Parts be put out of Order, the Whole is 
rendered ufelefs. 



And therefore the View and Defign of the 
above Difcourfe was to enquire, whether, in 
the original Syftcm or Conftitution of this 
Government, any certain Meafures, or Rules, 
with refpedt to fubordinate and delegated 
Powers, were to be found, by which the Good 
of Society tttight be effedtually afcertalned? 
As alfo, whether, by a Negled of thefe Mea- 
fures, and an inconfiderate Purfuit of every 
Species, or firft Appearance, of Good, all the 
rational and necefl^ry Ends of Government 
might not be deflroyed? " "', ./ 

"And, in the Courfe of that EfTay, the Au- 
thor endeavours to demonftrate, that the 
Strength and Vigour of Queen Elizabeths 
Reign principally confifted in maintaining aa 
uniform Courfe of Proceeding in the publick 
Offices, and in preferving the Officers of a 
lower Clafs from a fervile Dependance on 
their Superiors. 



i 4 






'I I'll 

[i. ] 

He fliews, that after the Acceflion of thcf 
Stuart Family, the breaking in upon the 
Syftem of the publick Offices filenced thofe 
Informations that ought to hai^e been given to 
the Crown, both with refpedl to the Revenue, 
and to publick and private Affairs : So that 
there could not, under fuch Circumftances, be 
any Confiftency in our Government, cither in 
the Condu<fl: of War or in Peace. ... 

And in the whole of that Eltay, he only 
recited the different Regulations, which have 
been made relating to the Privy Council, Trea- 
fury, Admiralty, &c. with fuch Remarks as 
were conceived to be pertinent to the Subjed, 
without pointing out any new Syftem, or Plan 

to .be obferved. 7 ■ ■' .-^ 


li, ^ I _■ . 

In treating of this SubjetS, he was obliged 
to make ufe of the Terms peculiar to the Of- 
fices, which fome Perfons may not compre- 
hend ; a little Attention, however, will make 
them clear enough to a fenfible Reader. 




His principal View was to draw the At- 
tention of the Publick to the Importance of 
the Subjcft, before he treated of the Syftem 
of the Publick Boards fmce the Year 1690: 
In the Profecution of which many Things of 
a very interefting Nature will neceflarily arife, 
and be brought to the View of the Publick ; 
and it would have been very imprudent in 
him to have carried on a Work of fo important 
a Nature, without being firft able to judge of 
the Difpofition of thofe who have the Power 
to redrefs. However, he hopes that the can- 
did Reader will not accufe him of Vanity, 
as a Dwarf may often fee many Things 
which a Giant may overlook j and that by 
pointing out the Road to more able and ikilful 
Perfons, he may be the Means of faving this 
Nation from imminent Danger and Diftrefs. 

With refpedl to the prefent ElTay, its 
Defign is humbly to propofe a Plan for uniting 
the Englijh Colonies on the Continent of 

America for their mutual Defence. Some 



Readers may not fully underftand certain 
Parts of this Difcourfe j but they will be fo 
candid, as not to cenfurc the Performance 
until they be better informed of the Courfc 
of Bufincfs in America, Such as are Judges 
of the Matter, if they fee any reafonable Ob- 
jedtions to what is propofed, will» it is hoped, 
for the Benefit of our Colonies, propofc fome 
othec Expedient for the uniting of them : By 
which the Author will gain all that he aims 
at, as his Endeavours have been wholly cal- 
culated for the Service of the Publick, with- 
out the Icaft View, or Intention, to refle<^ 
on any Perfons, who either have been, or 
now are, in Power. . .^ v »: r ^ :*.' 

'1 iiV :": 

,. A,. 

. U; 

"U; IhA ^A 

.:Li "loil - 

: i 

.. it ' 

P R D P Q-. 


' yj^ 

• / 


) , 


F O R 

Uniting the EngliJJj Colonies on the 
Continent of Anie7^ica^ fo as to 
enable them to ad: with Force and 
Vigour againft their Enemies. 


N a Treatife publiflied in 175-5 *» I 
obfervcd, that the Policy and (jenius 
of all Gov;;inments are beft ciif- 
cerned by iiieir Courfe of proceed- 
ing in their great Offices ; and as 
wc had then, and have now, many Concerns 
of a very intercfting Nature depending with 


* I'ltituhd, The Wifdom and Policy of the Fnrrh in con- 
ftrudting their (jreat Offices fo, as beft anlwers the Puipofes ot' 
cxtcndinj^ tbtir Tiadc and Commerce, b'f. 

R - France 


France^ I thought it i. light be of Lie to the Public 
to take a (hort View of the Syftern of their Go- 
vernment, and the Conftrut^ion of their great Of- 
fices i and in particular of their Council or Board 
of Commerce, that we might be the better 
enabled to judge of their Strength, Defigns, and 
Connexions in America. And in the Profecu- 
tion of the faid Defign I endeavoured to fhew, 
that in Government there muft be fome Power, 
which compared with the reft might bear the Sig- 
natures of Authority, and claim the Right of Di- 
redion -, for otherwife the Delegates of Power 
would be at Liberty to gratify every Appetite 
and Paflion in its Turn, and indulge every Defire 
which happened to h^ uppermoft. But that this 
not being thought confiilent with the Dignity of 
the French Monarchy, their Offices were fo con- 
ftituted, as to make the King the fole Mailer and 
Arbiter of all Rewards -, and that therefore he was 
confidered as the Center to which all Perfons 
employed in the Adminiilration of publick Affairs, 
and ail Matters relative to the Oifices, ultimately 
re for ted. 

A^ND in treating of the Motives which induced 
Leivis XIV. to conftitutc a Board of Commerce, 
and the Plan upon which the faid Board was con- 
ilituted, I obfcrved, that ic was not much above 
h»lf a Century fince France was not a Soil in 
which one could expect Trade to flouridi -, the 


[ 3 ] 

Maxims of their Government being, in many 
Refpe6ls, contrary to that Freedom and Security 
which are abfolutely neceflfary for the Improvement 
or Enlargement of Trade. But that Lewis XIV. 
in a great Meafure removed thofe Obftacles, by 
the Rules or Ordinances which he made on con- 
ftituting a Council of Commerce in 1700. For 
whatever the Exigencies of State might require 
him to do at particular Jundlures at Home, yet 
he took efFedluai Care to provide for the Security 
and Safety of his Subjects in America^ fo as not 
to leave them a Prey to the Governors and other 
Officers in the Plantations. 


The French King was under no Reftraint in 
appointing what Form of Government he thought 
fit, or in dire(5ting that all the Lands in America 
fhould be confidered as a Demefne of the Crown ; 
but as the Order and Subferviency of all lefler 
Syftems, and their Concurrence to the Good of 
the general Syftem, depend upon the Subordina- 
tion of the Parts, the Conftitution of the French 
Council or Board of Commerce, and ihe Form 
of Government inftituted in the Colonies, evident- 
ly (hew, that the Crown referved to itlcif only a 
Kind of parental Property in the American Colo- 
nies. . V . • 


I added, that in many other Refpeds, the politi- 
cal Views and Forefight of the French King, 2^\\^ his 
. . B 2 Minifters 

[ + 1 

Minifters of State, cannot be fuPiiciently admired, 
particularly in making the Crown the Center to 
which all Matters, relating to the Colonies, mull 
ultimately refort, by one Conveyance, or thro* one 
Channel only ; and in keeping the Offices, in all 
their feveral Branches or Departments, uniform, 
entire, and open, under fevere Penalties to be in- 
flifted on the Aggreflfors, and recoverable by the 
Subjeft, when injured I" y thofc in Truft and Power 
under the Crown. 

I N order more clearly and effe<fl:ually to il- 
luflrate this Matter, I inferted a Copy of the 
French King's Arret for ellablifhing a Board of 
Commerce ; in which the Regulations, of greatell: 
Moment and Efficacy, are. That the faid Board of 
Commerce fliall difcuis and examine all the Pro- 
pofitions and Memorials which may be fent to it, 
together with the Affairs and Difficulties which 
may arife concerning Commerce \ and likewife 
that the Secretary of the faid Board of Commerce 
fhall take care to keep an exadl Regifter of ali 
the Propofuions, Memorials, and Affairs, which 
fhall be brought before the faid Board, as alfo 
the Refolutions which (hall be taken thereupon : 
In which, I took Notice, there was much Safe- 
ty, as it is much eafier to reject any Propofition, 
or Memorial, than to affign a good Reafon for 
doing it. But that, what was ftill of greater Mo- 
ment, the faid Board of Commercej being ob- 
'^' " ' liged 

[ 5 ] 

liged to report their Opinion in the Manner above 
dircfled, on every Matter laid before them, they 
thereby prcferved a Kind of Independency in their 
own Sphere of Aftion. 

I LIKEWISE obferved, that the Revenues arifing 
in the French Colonies are accounted for in the 
Chamber of Accounts •, and that all Officers em- 
ployed therein give Security to the fald Chamber 
for the due Perfo -mance of their Duty j fo that on 
any Negled: or Omifiion in returning their Ac- 
counts, agreeable to the Rules prefcribed to them, 
their Sureties are liable to be profecuted \ and by 
this Means there is a conftant Fund or Supply for 
the Ufe of the Colonies, which accordingly is ap- 
plied to their Ufe, and, for the mod Part, by 
Pircftion of the Council of Commerce. 

And then T endeavoured to (hew the good Ef- 
fects which thofe Regulations and Arrets in France 
have produced, by taking a curfory View of the 
Trade and Navigation of the French Colonies at 
the Time when the faid Board of Commerce was 
firft inftituted, and comparing it with the prefent 
State thereof, and the furprifing Increafe of the 
Trade and Navigation of that Kingdom; and thence 
obferved, that from the whole Condud of the French 
they evidently appeared to be of Opinion, that 
the Dominion of the Seas, and the Strength and 
Jliches of their Country, in a great Mcafure, de- 

■X, 1 

St ' 

pended upon the Improvement of their American 
Colonies ; to gain which great and valuable End 
they would not be wanting either in Induftry, or 
in the Application of Money : And that as this 
was the Objefl of fo great and powerful a Rival 
in Trade, it juftly claimed our Attention to adopt 
every Scheme of theirs, which might fuit our 
prefent Intereft and Defigns. 


I AFTERWARDS cndcavoured to point out the 
Defigns of the French in forming Conneclions with 
iht" Indians, and in extending their Territories in 
America ; adding fome further Remarks on thu 
general Plan of Power which they are attempting 
to eftablifh. • ^ , . 

In relation to which I obferved, that when- 
ever a Government had Confiftency, and a proper 
Plan for managing their Affairs in Time of Peace, 
we might expe(51: the fame in War -, and that with- 
out it even fortunate Events would not turn to 
the Advantage of any Nation i and the'"eupon con- 
cluded, that if we commenced a War againft 
France, in Support of our Trade and Colonies, 
without firfl: coirefting the Abufes, which, thro' 
Time, had crept into the Publick Offices, we 
could not make any confiderable Effort, either in 
extending, or protecting, our Trade and Settle- 
ments ; and that by wrong Informations we might 
be led into many and great MiRakes, even fo as 



[ 7 ] ^ ' 

to apply improper Remedies, which, in the End, 
might prove deftruftive to this Nation. 

' And that, therefore, it was humbly conceived 
to be fit and proper (in thofe who had the Power 
to redrefs) to confider the prefent State of our 
Colonies, and of the Offices relative thereto ; and 
as France could not have afted with fuch Succefs 
as fhe has done, if Ihe had not had a (landing Fund 
appropriated to the Ufe of her Colonies, which 
had been always applied to the gaining of the In- 
dian Tribes, or Nations, and according to the other 
Exigencies of their Affairs, it became highly ne- 
cefTary for us alfo to cflablifh a Fund for the Ufe 
of cur Colonies, 




And in another Trcatife *, publifhed in 1755* 
I endeavoured to point out the miftaken Courfe 
of our proceeding in the Affairs of our Colonies ; 
thofe in Truft and Office in the Plantations, 
having it in their Power, under various plaufible 
Pretences, to take fuch Meafures as might render 
every Thing done by them precarious and uncer- 
tain i which muO:, from the Nature of Things, 
open a Door to many Inc.w>achments upon the 

• Entituled, A Milcellaneous Eflay concerning the CouiTes 
purfucd by Gnat Untaiv in the AtFairs of her Colonies. 
With ("ome Obfervations on the great Importance of our '^i^i' 
dements in .•?/«ir;f<7, and the Trade thereof. 

<.v Crown, 

Grown, and Afts of Oppreflion upon the Sub- 

Then, as one great Advantage the French have 
had over us in extending their Settlenients, and in 
gaining the ludiun Nations, or Tribes of Indians^ 
to their Intereft, hath principally arifen from their 
having feveral Funds, not only appropriated, but 
duly applied, to the Uies of their Colonies j and 
as, by our prefent CourCe of Proceeding, there is 
an Opening for many Incioachments, I thought it 
of life to treat briefly on that Subjedt, and to 
Ihew, that as all the foreign Revenues of the Crown 
wen formerly brought into the Exchequer^ by Aft 
ot i*arliament, the Reafons were equally ftrong 
for bringing the Revenues of the Crown in Ame- 
rica into the faid Court •, for all the Revenues of 
the Crown under the View of the Lord T^cafurer 
ought of Courfc to be brought into the Exchequer, 

And in tlie Profecution of the faid Difcourfe, 
I humbly offered it to the Confideration of the 
Publick, whether the Care and Vigilance of the 
French, in not only putting their Colonies into a 
Poflure of Defence, but alfo into a Capacity of 
beiii?;; very formidable, did not loudly call upon 
us to give the utmoll Attention to the Affairs of 
America ; for altho' we had very extenfive Settle- 
ments, an.i many natural Refources, yet if thofe 
Refources \::xc not properly exerted, they would 



[ 9 \ 

not avail us, or keep us from Surprize ; nor could 
we, in any Event whatfocver, reafonably hope for 
Succefs, until we introduced a regular and orderly 
Method of proceeding in Bufinefs. 

't • ' 

' Therefore, if we haftily purfued vigorous 
Meafures, in the Recovery of the Territories which 
of right belonged to us in America^ and did not 
firft regulate our Courfe of Proceeding with 
Refpe(5i: to the Affairs of our Colonies, and alfo 
build Forts for the Security of our frontier Settle- 
ments, and as a Place of Retreat to our Troops and 
to our friendly Indians^ it was much to be feared, 
that all the Blood and Treafure we might employ 
to that End would not have the defired Effed; and 
that our afting, at that critical Jundure, either 
too remifsly, or too precipitately, might be the 
Means of drawing on a Train of evil Confequences, 
which, in the End, might prove deftru6live to this 

That the Intrigues of the French in the Eafi 
Indies were likewife very alarming, and their 
Views and Defigns in Germany and Holland might 
eafily be difcovered j fo that there never was a 
Time, ivhich called more loudly, or more impor- 
tunately upon us, to take a View of our own im- 
mediate Concerns, and fo to regulate them as to 
free us from all Surprize. 

C And 

[ 10] 

And altho' we had .1 Fleet greatly fuperior to 
France, it was to be confidered, that fhe had it \\\ 
her Power to alarm us in different Quarters of the 
World, and fo to divide and draw off our Strength, 
in the Protedion of our Trade and dillant Settle- 
V ments, as to leave us too much cxpofed at Horn , 
yet notwithftanding the Confideration of thofc 
Matters was really very, it was (till 
in our Power, li we did not delay theSearon,toput 
our Affairs into fuch a Pofture, as to defy all the 
fecret and open Attempts of France againtt us ; but 
that this could only be done by having a regular 
uniform Courfe of Proceeding in our publiclc 
Boards j which might be the Means of laving us 
immenfe Sums of Money, that have been too often 
profuieiy employed, at improper Times, to regain 
•what we have loft by our Miftakes and Inadver- 
tencies ; the Truth of which might be evinced, by 
examining into our Conducl for upwards of twelve 
Years before the laft War with Spain ; and alfo 
the Meafures we have purfued, fince that Time, in 
relation to America. All which Miftakes, and 
the vaft Expence attending them, might have 
been avoided, provided we had had a regular, uni- 
form Courfe of Proceeding in our Publick Boards^ 
and Funds applicable to the Ufe of America. 




[ n ] 

Therefore it was moft humbly hoped, that 
pfoper Attention would be given to the feveral 
Matters contained in the Courfe of that Eflay ; 
that it would be thought for the Service of the 
Crown, and of the Subjc6t, to regulate the 
Publick Offices fo as to bring every Matter of 
Importance to the View of the Crown j that 
it would be thought ncccflary for the Support of 
our Trade and Settlements, to eftablifti fome new 
Funds, applicable only to the Ufe of America ; 
that it would be thought for the Security of His 
Majefty*s Subjefts in America^ and alio for the 
Protedtion of our Trade and Settlements, to ereft 
Forts neaf to the Five Indian Nations, to the 
Upper Cherokees^ and to the Creek Indians ; and alfo 
that it would be thought for the Service of this 
Kingdom, to put our Iflands in a Porture of De- 
fence i and, laftly, that the Importance of thofe 
Matters might be judged worthy of the Atten- 
tion of thofe, in whofe Power it was to defeat the 
lecret Defigns of our Enemies. ^ r 

However, as the aforefaid Treatifes had not 
the defired EtFe£tj and that we entered into a 
War without regulating our Affairs, and eftabhlh- 
ing a Plan or Syftem of Adion ; we have been 
thereby liable to an nfinire Number ot Miftakes 
and Inadvertencies, and from that Caufe we have 
expofcd ourfeives to many Hazards, and to an in- 
finite Expence of Blood and Treafurc. And as 

C 2 , fuch 


t .2 ] 

fiich Regulations were abfolutely ncceflary, pre- 
vious to our entering into a War, and as by 
Experience we have found the fatal Confequences 
arifing from tlie Want of them ; this ought to in- 
duce us, before we proceed further, to ellablilh 
fome invariable and fixt Plan of Action ; for with- 
out it, private Interefl: will, for the moll: Part, be 
preferred to the publick Good •, and Stratagems 
will be employed to deceive Men in Power. 

And akho' what is propofed may be attended 
with fome Trouble, yet in the End it will give more 
Eafe and Plcafure, and will be much more con- 
fident with the Honour and Dignity of Men in 
Power, to purfue one invariable Plan of Adlion, 
than to be led out of the due Road of Bufinefs 
by every firft Appearance, or Species of Good. 
However, as it is fcarce poflible to determine the 
Will of others, in any interefting Matter, without 
the Authority and Example of Men of eminent 
Wifdom and Experience, I (hall pray L(^we to 
mention, that Sir William Cedl (afterwards Lord 
Burleigh, and Lord High Trcafurer of England) 
plainly fliewed, by his Condudl, at the firft felting 
out of Queen Elizabeth^ Reign, that he thought 
the firft Entrance into Bufinefs was the proper 
Time to eftablifn a regular and orderly Courfe of 
and therefore he requefted her Ma- 
emorial, to remove to the Tower, in 
:he Archives, or Records, were then 


Proceeding \ 

[ J3 ] 

kept; that being there freed from the Attendance 
and Importunity of her Courtiers, (he might fettle 
her Officers and Council, and take fuch other Steps 
as were nccelTiry for regulating the publick Con- 
cerns of this Nation j a Copy of which Memo- 
rial may be found in the Coiionian Library. 

Whereupon I beg Leave to obferve, that 
Sir JVilHam Cecil was of Opinion, that if he de- 
ferred the Confideration of thofe Matters, and 
continued the Courfe of Bufinefs which was 
in Ufe in the Reign of Queen Mary^ he would 
find it extreamly difficult, if not impoffible, to 
introduce an invariable Plan of A(fliGn after- 
wards : And indeed, when Men in Power fet 
out in a wrong Road, it is not eafy to influence 
fuch as are in Connections with them, to return 
into a proper Courfe of Bufmefs ; nor is it poffible 
for them to guard againll the Cabuls or Fadtions 
which may be raifed by Men who want to thrive 
and fatten upon the Spoils of a Nation. 

Thr Example of the Great Sully ought likewlfe 
to have its proper Weight -, for when he undertook 
to reform the /ibufes which had crepe into the 
Adminiftration of publick Afi'airs in France, he 
did not proceed by partial Reformations in the 
Great Council, in the Treafury, and in the Cham« 
ber ot Accounts, ^c. nor did he attempt to re- 
cover the Demeliie of the Crown, until he had re- 

\ I 

': \ 


[ 14 1 

formed the Great Offices •, becaufe, although fuch 
an Attempt might have had fome good Effcdls 
for the prcicnt, they could not have been perma- 
nent or lii.'tingi nor could he in any Event what- 
ibevcr have rcdrelled the many Grievances then 
complained of, or fupported the Dignity of his 
Sovereign, il he had not laid a proper Foundation 
for the Strudlure alterwards to be raifed by him. 
FrcDi which wc may learn, that all Pretenfions to 
Pacriotifm arc vague and idle, and a mere Decep- 
tion, unlels they take their Rife from conftitu- 
onal Principles! and when this is the Cafe, it will 
be found the firll and moll necelTuy Thing to re- 
ftorc the ancient Syilem of the public Boards. 

However 1 (hall in the prefent Difcourfe con- 
fine myfcif to the Confideration of the Affairs of 
our Colonies on the Continent, more efpccially as 
I intend hereafter, if needful, to treat of the Syf- 
tem of our public Boards, from the Revolution 
unto this Time, having already traced it from the 
Reign of Henry VII. to that Period. 

The firft: Settlements of moft of our Colonies 
in /hncrica were made by private Adventurers ; 
many of the Colonies were alterwards incorporated 
by Chatters or Privileges granted by the Crown, 
with a Power to make Laws, and to eftablilh 
Courts of Juftice, Forms of Judicature, and the 

'' Manner 

ncr oF Proceeding, and in fomc Rcfpefts to cfta- 
blifli their own Form of Government, under this 
Limitation, that the Laws or Statutes pafled by 
them, (hould not be repugnant, but as r\car as 
pofliblc agreeable to the Laws of England, 

And whereas in thofe remote Colonies fit u ate 
near many barbarous Nations, the Incurfions of the 
Savages, as well as other Enemies, Pirates, and 
Robbers, might probably annoy them i the faid 
Corporations were authorized and impowered to 
levy, mufter, and train all Sorts of Men, of 
what Condition foever, and to purfue their Ene- 
mies as well by Sea as by Land, even without the 
Limits of their refpedlivc Provinces. 


It is alfo proper to mention, that there are fe- 
veral other Colonies that are more immediately 
dependant on the Crown, both with Refpedt to 
their Laws and Conftitutions -, yet it has been 
the Pleafure of the Ciown, to allow them a kind 
of legiflative Power, under particular Reftraints and 

Now as all thofe Colonies may in fome Particu- 
lars be confidered, with refpedl to each other, as fo 
many independant States, yet they ought to be con- 
fidered as one with refpedt to their Mother Coun- 
try ; and therefore a Union of the Colonies, for 


[ i6] 

their general Defence, fo framed as to oblige them 
to aft jointly, and for the Good of the Whole, can 
only be made by the Wifdom of our LegiQature ; 
and without fuch an Union, it is impoffible to 
make the Colonies ad with Force and Vigour, or 
to oppofe the united Force of the French^ altho' 
much inferior in Point of Number. 





There is another Thing highly worthy of At- 
tention, viz. that tho' the Charter Governments 
are entitled to make Bye Laws for the better order- 
ing their own Domeftic Affairs, yet they are not 
entitled to make Laws which may have a general 
Eficd:, either in obfl:ru6ting the Trade of this 
Kingdom, or in laying Rellraints and Difficulties 
on the neighbouring Colonies : For as their Power 
in a Legiflative Capacity originally flows from 
the Crown, under certain Limitations and Reflric- 
tions, particularly that of not paffing any Laws, 
but fuch as are confiftent with the Conftitution and 
Laws of this Kingdom, the Intention of the Crown 
muft have been, that the F^itnefs and Expediency 
of fuch Laws fhould be only cognizable and deter- 
minable by the Crown, or by the Legiflature in 
this Kingdom, as it is conceived the Colonies can- 
rot be proper Judges in their own Cafe : Yet to 
fuch Excefs have fome of the Charter Governments 
proceeded, particularly Rhode Ifland and Connec- 
ticut ^ that they have enabled Laws, that no Law 
ihall take Efted in their Colonies, unlefs it be firft 



authenticated or enadled into a Law by them •, 
and thus they have made themfelves Judges of the 
Fitnels and Expediency of their own Laws, by not 
tranfenitting them to the proper Boards at Home : 
Their Charters indeed are injudicioufly filent on 
this Head, yet the Thing is in itfelf not only fi: and 
reafonable, but abfoluteiy neceflary. 


And therefore if the Affairs of the Colonies 
are taken into Confideration in Parliament, it is 
humbly conceived, that it would be highly fit and 
proper to regulate this Matter, in order to pre- 
vent the many Incroachments, which feveral of 
the Co' >nics have made with refpe6l to Trade, 
and in the "fTuing of Paper Bills of Currency, 
which hath often had a publick and a general^ Ef- 
fect, and greatly injured the Trade and Commerce 
of this Kingdom J and in Cafe of an Union amongfl: 
the Colonies for their mutual Defence, it would 
make it impolTible for them to make good the 
Supplies neceffary to fupport the Charge of the 
Troops which may be fent from one Colony to 
the Support of another, efpecially as their Bills of 
Currency differ greatly in Value, and that they 
have no regular Courfc of Exchange between one 
Province and another : befides, in new Countries 
they cannot have thoib Refources which may be 
had in Countries where Trade and the Courfe of 
Exchanges are regularly effablifhed. 



[ i8] 

The firft or principal Morive for ifluing Bills 
of Credit in the feveral Provinces on the Continent 
of America^ was to anfwer the incident Charges of 
the refpedive Governments ; and if this had been 
done under wile and prudent Regulations, there 
would not have been much Caufe of Complaint: 
But in the firft fetting out they went upon a wrong 
Principle, by making fuch Bills of Credit a legal 
Tender in Payment of all Debts whatfoever, even 
fuch as were contraded before the ifluing of the 
f-id Bills of Currency ; which was afluming a 
Power which did not of Right belong to the Co- 
lonies, and was in its own Nature contrary to ali 
the Principles of Law and Equity. ., . .,^ 




The Metbod ufually taken In emitting Paper 
Bills of Currency in the Colonies, was, by Aft of 
Aflembly to order that Bills of Credit to the 
Amount of fhould be ftampt and figned 

by the Commiflioners appointed for that Furpofe *, 
that fuch Bills fhould be lent out on Land Se- 
curity, at legal Intereft -, and that fuch Perfons as 
were poiTelTed of the faid Bills, Ihould be intitled 
to pay their Debts with them, as rated by Ad of 

The faid Bills had originally no other intrinfick 
Value than the being a Tender in Law, and 
enabling fuch Perfons as borrowed them to dif- 


[ '9 ] 

charge their Debts therewith ; the Fund that was 
applicable to the Difcharge or finking of the faid 
Bills arifing wholly from the Intereft paid by the 
Mortgagees into the Treafurer's Hands. 

This Method of Proceeding is therefore dia- 
metrically oppofite to all the Principles of Law 
and Juftice, and in its Confequences prejudicial to 
the Crown, the Colonies, and the Trade and 
Commerce of Great Britain. 


i i 


It is likewife to be obferved, that in fome 
Inftances the Colonies have emitted Paper Bills of 
Currency upon the Credit of a future Provifion 
to be made by Provincial Taxes tor the Difcharge 
of the faid Bills ; but as often as the fiid Taxes 
have fallen fhort, or been mifapplied, the Colo- 
nies have had Recourfe to a new Emiffion of 

Paper Bills of Credit: And in all Cafes, the 

Value of the faid Bills have fluduated more or 
lefs, in Proportion to the right or wrong Appli- 
cation of the Funds whereon they were iflued > 
fo that in feveral of the Colonies, at different Times, 
their current Bills have been greatly depreciated 
jn their nominal Value, "oiz. from 3^ ^^ per Cent. 
to 600 per Cent, and in fome of the Colonies 
1000/. in Bills of Currency would not, by the 
Courfe of Exchange, bring more than One Hun- 
dred Pounds Sterling j but in this Refpett tncrd 

have been fome Alterations made fince 174^- 

D 2 1 have 




20 J 



I have treated the longer on this Subjeft, in 
order to fliew the Neceflity of introducing one 
Currency as a Medium or Standard in the Inter- 
courfes of Trade ; for if at any Time hereafter, 
we unite the Colonies, fo as to make them all 
concur and adl together for the good of the whole, 
the having different Kinds of Currency will, as is 
above obi'erved, lay them under great Difficulties 
in the Payment of their Quotas, or in paying the 
Troops which may be fenc from one Colony to 
the Aid and Affiftance of another; befides, their 
making the prefent Bills of Currency a Tender in 
the Payment of all Contrads, even fpccial, where 
Gold or Silver is contra(5lfd for, is in itfelf un- 
juit, and cannot be legitimated from the Plea of 
Necellity : therefore luch Claufes in Adts of Af- 
fembly for emitting Paper Bills of Credit ought 
to be repealed. And akho' this may feem to in- 
jure the Holders of the faid Bills of Currency, 
yet if the Colonies are obliged to make good the 
Funds on which they were ifTued, and that they 
are received in Payment of the provincial Taxes, 
and ol the Qj.iit Rents and Cultoms, tne Holders 
of the Bills will not find any conliderable Lofs 
thereby. -^ v ; 


1 ' 

Besides, the introducing of Paper Currency, 
as a Medium in Trade, is an Infringement on the 
Prerogatives ot the Crown, and could never have 

■ ''^' "'■ , '" taken 


taken Place in the Manner that it has done, if 
the Lords of Trade had not formerly omited to 
report to the Crown, a true State of the Colonies 
once in every Year, as directed by their Inftitution 
or Appointment. 

Having thus briefly mentioned fuch Matters 
as require the Confideration of thofe who have the 
Power to redrefs, I (hall beg Leave further to 
offer to their Confideration, the Steps which I 
humbly apprehend may be necelfary to be taken, 
in order to form an Union of the Colonies in 
America for their general Defence and Protection. 

The Colonies, as is above obferved, are to be 
confidered with refpeft to each other as fo many 
independent States \ yet they ought to be con- 
fidered as one with refped: to their Mother Country, 
bt'.ng under the Proteflion of the Legiflature, and 
in fome Degree in the Character of Wards, or 
thofe under the Protedlion of Guardians ; and 
altho* many Pcrfons in the Colonies have often 
snfitted that they have no proper Rcprefentative 
here, yet this Plea may with equal Reafon be 
urged by many Men of Fortune in this Kingdom ; 
but as both there and here fuch Pcrfons enjoy the 
Privileges of Subjects, and the Protedlion of the 
Laws, they are indifpenlabiy bound to conform 
their Condudl to the Rules and Principles pre- 
fer i bed 


. t 22] 

fcribed to them by the Laws and Conftitutions of 
this Kingdom. 

And therefore it is mo(t humbly propofed to 
the Confideration of the Pubiick, whether it may 
be proper to enadc, that every Perfon refiding in 
the Colonies from the Age of Fourteen to Sixty, 
(hall be liable to a Poll-Tax of Eighteen Pence 
Sterling, per Head, to be colleftcd by fuch Offi- 
cers as His Majefty (liall appoint for that Purpofe, 
or by Direction of the Governor and Council 
and Aflembly in each of the Colonies refpeftiveiy; 
and that the Sums arifing therefrom (hall be only 
applicable to the mutual Benefit and Advantage of 
the Colonies. 

• .1 •'','' ^' 

■ ■ ■> * ■■ ■ ■'.''.' ■' ■' . ■ I . f M> . 

jt- ■ 

1 HAT as by a moderate Computation, the Poll- 
Tax fo collected would amount to upwards of 
Fifty Thoufand Pounds Sterling per Annum^ Com- 
miflloners be appointed by His Majefty to emit 
or ilTue Bills or Cafli Notes (which may be in- 
titled the Bills of Union) to the Amount of the 
Sum which may reafonably be fuppofed to arife 
therefrom j payable either in the Courfe of one, 
two, or three Years, or as the Exigency of Affairs 
may require, viz. if One Hundred and Fifty 
Thouf id Pounds Sterling be required, the Bills 
to be yable in three Years, and lo in Proportion 
for a iA'^v Sum. 



[ 23 ] 

That when the above Tax is colledlcd, the faid 
Bills be cancelled by proper Officers appointed 
for that Purpofe i but as the Fund is every Year 
increafing, if the Exigencies of tVi Affairs of the 
Colonies require a further Enriiffion of the Bills 
of Union, that the Commiffioners be empowered 
to iiTue more Bills on the Credit of the faid Fund. 

• That the faid Bills be made a legal Tender in 
the Payment of provincial Taxes, in the Payment 
of the Quit-rents to the Crown, and of the Cuf- 
toms, and alfo in the Payment of fuch provincial 
Troops, as are raifed for the mutual Defence of 
the Colonies, but not in any Cafe whatfoever to 
be tendered as a Payment in fpeciai Contrads ; 
for they will always find their true Value, with- 
out taking this Step, or breaking in upon the 
Jntcrcourfes of Trade and Commerce. 


There is another Courfe which may be taken, 
namely, to ifTue Exchequer Orders, or to ifTuc 
Bills of Union, or Army Debentures, in fmallSums, 
upon the Faith and Credit of Parliament -, which 
may be done either Abroad or at Home ; but 
then fuch Bills muft be made redeemable within a 
reafonable and limited Time. 


And there is a third Method which has been 
often mentioned in private, viz. to introduce a 
5tampt Duty on Vellum and Paper in America, 

"• and 


and to lower the Duty upon foreign Rum, Sugar, 
and Molafles, imported into our Colonies to one 
Penny Sterling per Gallon ; which Duties, if juftly 
collc(5led, would amount together to upwards ot 
60,000/. Sterling per Annumy and in this Cafe it 
would be proper toeftablifh and incorporate a Bank 
at London, by the Name, Style, and Title, of 
the Bank of America, in the following Man- 
ner, viz. 

That One Million Sterling be raifed by Sub- 
fcription, each Subfcriber paying down (as in our 
Bank Circulation) -,'d Part of the Money fub- 
fcribed, the Subfcribers being dill liable to a Call 
for the Remainder, under the Penalty of forfeiting 
the Sum fo depofited. That for the greater and 
more regular Difpatch of Bufinefs, the Bank Ihall 
have a Committee of Correfpondents at Williamf. 
hurgb in Virginia, and another at the City of NeW' 
2ork, or if needful in all the Colonies. 

That the Colonies on the Continent of Ame- 
nV^ Ihall be at Liberty, by mortgaging their Funds, 
to borrow Bills or Calh Notes from the Bank; and 
that the faid Bills or Cafh Notes fhall be made 
out by the Committee of Correfpondents appointed 
by the Bank in fuch Sums, as the Legiflature in 
the faid Provinces refpcdively (hall think fit to 


[«5 ] 

,.T. i ^» 

That the faid Bills or Cafh Notes (hall circu- 
late, and be a Tender in America, in the Pay- 
ment of Chief Rents, Cuftoms, and alfo in the 
Payment of Provincial Taxes, and in all Matters 
whatfoevcr wherein there is no fpecial Contraft to 
the contrary j but at the fame Time the Holders 
of tKe faid Bills, or Ca(h Notes, (hall be at Liber- 
ty to demand Payment for the fame in England, 
in Sixty Days from the Time they are fo offered 
for Payment to the Qgnk, 

1 ; 

That the f^id Bank Ihall not iflue any greater 
Sum in Bills or Caih Notes, than what is equal 
to the Sum fubfcribed by them ; and that the 
Bank (hall be fe(trained from taking any higher 
Intereft than Six per Cent, per Annum, for any Sum 
advanced by them to the Provinces by Way of 

If this Scheme meets with Approbation, it 
will, las js conceived, be of infinite Service to the 
Colonics, and the Proprietors of the Bank will be 
greatly benefited by it; which I (hall endeavour 
to illuftrate by the following Confiderations : • 


By the Liberty granted to the Provinces to 
raife Money in the Manner above propofed, they 
will be enabled to difcharge their prefent Bills of 

E Credit, 


[ 26 ] 

Credit, which are, from their uncertain and fluc- 
tuating Nature, of great Diflervice to the Creditt 
Trade, and Commerce of the Colonies. 

The faid Provinces, by mortgaging their Funds 
or fuch Taxes as they raife upon themfelves, will 
have it in their Powjr to eilablifti Loan Offices, in 
the Manner which has been pradifed in Pennjjfha' 
nia i which may be the Means of bringing a great 
Number of foreign Settlers amongft them ; the 
Truth of which may be fully evinced from what 
has been done in Pennfylvania^ in which Province 
they have ofcen fupplied above Four Thoufand 
Settlers, in the Year, with Money by way of Mort- 
gage on the Lands taken up by them : So that if 
we had Loan Offices eredted in the other Colonies, 
it is reafonable to believe, from the Difpofitions of 
the Swifs^ Palatines, &(. that vafl Numbers of 
them would hereafter tranfport themfelves to our 
Colonies in America. 

And with regard to the Proprietors of the faid 
Bank, the Advantage arifing to them may be very 
confiderable, as in all Probability much lefs than 
One Hundred Thoufand Pounds would circulate 
a Million Sterling. But then there is Allowance 
to be made for the Rifk and Charge the faid 
Bank would be at in carrying on this Bufinef^. 





/ What I have now mentioned is only the Out- 
lines, or Heads of what I would humbly propofe 
to be carried into Execution, and may perhaps 
admit of fome Alteratiqns. 

But if the above Regulations are approved of, 
it will be further necelfary to edablifh a Militia 
in each of the Provinces, which Ihould ferve as 
Provincial Troops, not only in ths Colony where 
the fald Militia is raifed, but 9}io in any Part of 
America^ where the Safety anrl Procedtion of any 
of the Colonies may require their Attendance* 


That the Governor and Council in each of the 
Provinces have the Nomination of the Officers. 

: And as the Magiftrates, in the Counties in the 
refpeStive Colonies, are the proper Judges of the 
Perfons who can be belt fpared within the faid 
Counties, that they be impowered to nominate fuch 
as (hall ferve in the Provincial Troops. 

That the faid Troops be allowed Arms when 
needful, and a Coat and Breeches^ as an Uniform, 
once in two Years ; and be exercifed as frequently 
as the Governors anc Councils of the Provinces 
(hall judge that the Diilance of their Habitations 
will allow them to affemble without hindering their 

E 2 ncccflary 



[ 28 ] 

nccedary Occupations i and be allowed 2/. 12 s. 
per Annum for their travelling Charges ro the Place 
of Hxcrcife. And that thofe who have fervcd four 
Years, (hall, if required, be difcharged, and others^ 
nominated by the Judices of the faid Counties, put 
in their Room. 

That when they arc called imon to do Duty, 
or to march from one Colony to the Aid of another, 
boih OiHcers and Soldiers (hail be paid and pro* 
vided for in the fame Manner as the regular Troops 
in His Majefty's Service. 


It is proper to obferve here, that all Men fit to 
bear Arms in the Colonies are obliged to do Duty 
when the Law Militaiy is declared by Proclama- 
tion : but then they cannot be compelled to march 
out of their own Provinces, therefore the other 
Method is neccflary to be taken, in order to unite 
the Force of the Colonies for their general Pro- 


There are at Icaft Two Hundred and Fifty 
Thoufand Men fit to bear Arms in Jmerica, but 
the fmall Number of White Inhabitants, and the 
Multitude of Slaves in the Southern Provinces, 
would render it unfafe for a great Number of the 
former to quit the Province: An Equivalent in 
Money ought therefore to be paid by thefe Pro- 
vinces i which might be raifed,' by including the 

** Slaves 



[ »9 ] 

Slaves in the Poll-Tax •, and this would be an 
equitable Way of raifing it, as the Rich ought to 
pay more than the Poor. 

On the whole, the having of one Currency 
throughout all the Englijh Colonies in America^ if 
properly condufled, will be of infinite Service to 
their Trade and Commerce \ and their having 
provincial Troops, who may be called upon by 
the Crown, to aid and afllfl in whatfoever Place 
they may be required, will give Force and Vigour 
to the Colonies, and enable them to defend them- 
felves againft the Incroachments of the French, 

And the having a Fund appropriated to the 
Ufe of the Colonies will likewife enable them to 
make handfome Prefents to the Indianst which 
ought ^o be done yearly, at fuch Times as are 
appointed for that Purpofe \ but then the fafefl: 
Courfe we can take, is to reftore the Importance 
of the Five Nations, and make them to treat with 
the Indians^ who were formerly their Dependants ; 
and we ought to obferve the fame Rule with the 
Cberokees, and with the Creek Indians •, and the 
more effedjally to attach them to our Interefl:, we 
ought to apply at lead Twelve Thoufand Pounds 
Sterling per Annum to that Ufe; and to prote(^ the 
Indians from the Abuies which have been too often 
committed by our Indian Traders j fome Regula- 
tions are much wanted on this Head. 

^ It 





It may be objeded by fomc Pcrfons, that altho' 
the above Regulations are necefTary and proper in 
themfelvcs, yet this is an improper Junfture for 
carrying them into Execution. In anfwer to which 
I beg Leave to obferve, that without an Union of 
the Colonies we cannot profccute a War with 
any reafonable Hopes of Succefs : That the vifibk 
Decreafe of the current Specie of this Kingdom, 
and the heavy Taxes we groan under, r..ake it ab- 
folutely necefTary to introduce all the Oeconomy 
in our Power, which may be confident with the 
Safety or Protedion of Ar*erica ; and that if this 
Matter is deferred until we come into Terms of 
Accommodation with Fran^:^ it would then be 
an improper Time to do it, as it would carry all 
the Appearance of hoftile Preparations, and im- 
mediately embroil us in new Troub!;:s and I>if< 
putes with them i fo that in all Refpeds this is 
the only fit Jundlure to proceed in this Matter, 
and to lay the Foundation of our future Security 
and Protedion. ' r* - 


And if this is done under proper Regulations, 
the Colonies would be enabled to extend their 
Arms, and to vindicate their Rights and PofTcf- 
fions again ft the Frenchy provided we do not 
limit their Bounds by any indigeftcd Treaty with 





[3' ] 

But after all, with rcfpcft to our interior Coa- 
cerns in the Colonies, if wc do not regulate our 
Courfe of proceeding in the Offices in Jmerica^ 
and at Home •, the Subjefts of this Crown in Ame- 
rica may be made very unhappy from the unjufti- 
fiablc Condu6t of Men in Power % and there will 
alfo be an Opening for many Incroachments on the 
Crown, as well as on the Subjeft. 

Therefore every Perfon concerned in colleift- 
ing any publick Taxes, which may be levied ia 
America^ in purfuance of any Aft of Parliament, 
ought to be obliged to give in Bond ir the Exche- 
quer for the faithful Performance of the Truft ic- 
pofed in him. 

The Secretary's Office in each of the Colonies 
refpedtively in Anttrica, ought alfo to be confidersd 
as an Office of Record ; and all Bufinefs tranfadv^d 
by His Majefty's Governors, either in a minifte- 
rial or judicial Capacity, or as Ordinary, in grant- 
ing Probates of Wills, cr Adminiftrations. ^c. 
ihould be entered at large in the Council Journals 
(which is a Branch of the Secretary's Office ;) and 
fo remain in the Colonies as a Record, for the 
Safety and Benefit of the Subjects *, Copies of which 
ought alfo to be remitted to his Majeily's Secre- 
tary of State, and Council of Trade : And for the 









Performance of this Dutv, the Secretaries ought 
to enter into Bonds or Recognizances at Home. 

And as His Majefty's Governors are conlidered 
to have a Superintendency and great Influence 
over all the Officers within their refpedive Govern- 
ments, if iny of His Majefty's Subjeifts there ap- 
prehend ihemfeives to be aggrieved by any Perfon 
in Power, they ought to be intituled to lay their 
Grievances before the Governor and Council ; and 
to examine all fuch Evidences as they can p«-o" 
duce in Support of their Charge, fo as to make 
the fame Matter of Record. 


And £.5 thoie Records ought to be tranfmitted 
Home once in every Year to the Lords Commif- 
fioners for Trade and Plantations, their Lordlhips 
might thereby be fully apprized of the Courfe and 
Proceedings of the Officers of the Crown, and 
of the Affairs of the Colonies; fo as to enable 
their Lordlhips to recommend thofe Officers to the 
Crown who behaved properly in the Truft repofcd 
in them, and to difmifs and punilh fuch as de- 
viated from tiicif Duty. By the Inftkution of the 
Board of Trade, it evidently appears, that tii;^ re- 
commending of Officers to the Crown, was a fpc- 
cial Truft repofed in that Board, to be employed 
only for protecting the Servants of the Crown 
in their Duty, and rewarding Merit and Ser- 


I S£G 

1 1 

3 J; 

V < 

[33 ] 

I BEG Leave further to obferve, that although 
there appears great Wifdom and Knowledge in the 
Frame or Sy ftem of our Council of Trade as d ra wn, 
or planned, by Lord Sommcrs, yet there are ieveral 
Things wanting /ith refpeft to the Regulations 
neceflary in America ; and likewife in the original 
Inltru6tions to our Governors, which were faid to 
be prepared and drawn by Mr. Locke, who doth 
not feem to have been thoroughly acquainted with 
the dueCourfe of Proceeding in the publick Offices, 
by which the Crown or ^ht to be made the Center 
of Bufinefs. Thofc ^ ix -.uAt to be better informed 
on this Subjcft may look into the Rolls, where 
they will find all the Proceedings in relation to 
the conftituting of a Council of Trade upon Re- 
cord : But as this Affair will come properly with- 
in the View of another Difcourfe, I (hall defer 
treating it any further till another Time. 


However, with refpedl to the Colonies, it is 
further to be obferved, that -bo-igh an Union 
amongft them is abfolutely re irrry, and cannot 
with Safety admit of Delay, yti, ?s the French 
have introduced a great Number of regular Troops 
into their Colonies ; and that they have prevailed 
with moft of the Indian Nations to aft in concert 
with their Irregulars, in fcalping and murdering 
our frontier Settlers, ana Ir. intimidating many 

F Thoufands 

[ 34 ] 

Thoufands of others, fo as to make them defert and 
fly from their Habitations •, it becomes thereby indif- 
penfably necelfary in us to tranfport a confiderable 
Number of regular Troops to America, The Nc- 
cefilty of which may be better underftood by con- 
fidering the Situation, and what, in all Probabi- 
lity, are the Views and Defigns of the French in 
the prefent War in America-, viz, ,:• , 

The French Colonies are in the For'M of a 
Crefcent on the Back of the Englijh Colo..' i.i 
America^ and extend oppofite to our Settletr*c s 
upwards of Fifteen Hundred Miles in Length -, 
and m this extended Country mod of the Indians 
are in their Intereft, at leaft under their Diredion •, 
whereby they are enabled to make fudden and 
bloody Irruptions into our Colonies, and to exer- 
cife unheard-of Scenes ot Cruelty. And as there 
has not been any Syftem or Plan formed, for 
uniting our Colonies in their general Defence, in- 
ftead of collecting their Force properly, they have 
been thrown into the utmoft Confufion and Diftrefs. 
So that the French, taking the Advantage of our 
want of Syftem, have employed their Irregulars 
and Indians to maffacre our frontier Settlers, whilft 
they employ their regular Troops, and Coureurs 
des Bois, to adl againft I'uch Bodies of Men as we 
have coUedted together to annoy them in their 
Settlements. ■ *' v 





An'd in relation to their prefent Views and 
Defigns, 1 apprehend it may, upon good Grounds, 
be conjedlured, that next Campaign they intend to 
attack us in three different Quarters ; and alfo by 
their Indians and Irregulars to alarm and deftroy 
the back Settlements in all the EngUJh Colonies on 
the Continent of America, 

I'; I 

For having this Winter fent upwards of One 
Thoufand Men to Mijjiftppiy in which Government 
they have not hitherto met with any Difturbance ; 
their unwearied and flrenous Endeavours to gain 
to their Intereft thofe powerful Nations, which 
are known by the Names of the Cherokee and Creek 
Indians^ and feveral fmaller Nations in Confede- 
racy with thefe (which, when colledled together, 
would amount to upwards of Seven Thoufand 
fighting Men) plainly difcover their Intentions 
10 be againft Georgia and Carolina, and, in their 
defenfelefs State to over-run them, fo as to gain 
their Sea Coaft, or Ports upon the Wellern 

The great Number of regular Troops they have 
at prefent in Canada, and the feveral Regiments 
which are faid to be embarked, or at Icafl: ready 
to embark, for that Province, makes it reafunable 
to believe, that they intend to give fuch Regulars 

E 2 as 


■ [ 36 ] 

as we have at prefent in New Tork Government^ 
and fuch as we may hereafter fend, even when 
joined with the New England Forces, full Employ- 
ment : Or, indeed, if our Succours, or a farther 
Aid of regular Troops, be long delayed, to take 
Advantage of our Negledls or Omiflions, and to 
feize, or take Pofleflion of, the Provinces of New 
Tork and Pennjylvania, ; ,,,, ,, • • 

The Proximity, or Nearnefs, of Cape Breton to 
Nova Scotia, the Affiftance of the Indians in the 
Province of Ga/pejie, and the leaving a Part of the 
great Number of Troops the French are faid to be 
fhipping for Anwica, at the Ifland of Cape Breton^ 
may alfo greatly endanger the Province of Nova 
Scotia ; and if they fucceed there, Newfoundland 
cannot make any confiderablc Refiftance ; fo 
that in fuch an alarming Situation of Things, we 
can neither depend fingly upon the Protection of 
our rvTgular Troops, or fingly upon the prc'nn- 
cial Troops nor on both of them united i until 
there be fuch a regular Plan formed, as may enable 
us not only to aft againft thofe Armies the French 
may bring into the Field, but alfo againft thelncur- 
fions of the Indians, when joined with the French Ir- 
regulars. Which can only be done by uniting the 
Forceof our Colonies, and by keeping feveral thou- 
fand Rangers conftantly employed to watch the 
Motions ot the French Irregulars, and to annoy them 
in our Turn -, in which Cafe many of the Indians, 


t 37l 

who rather fcrve tht French thro' Fear than Incilna- 
tion, will immediately return to our Incereft, and 
a(5t jointly with our Irregulars, in didurbing the 
French in their Settlements j which would draw off 
many of the Courmrs des Bois, as well as of the Re- 
gulars, to the Protedtion of their ow People. ■— 
But as this will require confiderable Sums of Mc* 
ney, even more than we can cafily fpare, *tis juft and 
reafonable that the Colonics fho'jld contribute to 
an Expence principally calculated for their own 
Safety and Protcd' \ Yet in the prcfcnt Situa- 
tion of their Curi, cy, and in the Manner of 
railing the provincial Taxes, they arc utterly un- 
able to contribute any Thing confiderable in this 
way, unlefs it be thought agreeable to the Wifdom 
of the Legiflaturc to eftabiilh a Fund for the ge- 
neral Ufe and Security of the Colonies, or to al- 
low our Governors in /Imerica to iflue Notes or 
Bills of Credit, redeemable by fome future Pro- 
vifion to be made by Parliament. 

Upon the whole, if we compare the Number of . 
the French Settlers on the Continent of America 
with our Number and Situation, and the many 
Refources we have, if properly exerted, it is ' 
Matter of Wonder and Amazement to confider 
the Advantages they have gained over us, and 
the Danger we are ftill expoled to from the Want 
of Syftem in the Condui^t of publick Affairs : , 
As we are at prefent circumftanced, we cannot 



[38 1 

reafonably hope for Redre "r/efs it be thought 
agreeable to the Wifdoni > r Senators to ap- 
point a Committe to examine into the State and 
Condition of our Colonies ; to create a new Fund 
and to eftablifli a Militia, for the general Security 
of our Settlements, and to apply fuch further 
Remedies, as may be thought neceffary in fo inte- 
retting a Matter. •' '■ ^-I'^rKi 


.1 1 

'' And altho' what is now offered may have the 
Appearance of giving much Trouble and Fatigue 
to the Members of any Committee which may 
be appointed for that Purpofe, yet I humbly 
apprehend, that, in lefs than Ten Days, the 
Members of fuch Committee might examine and 
difcufs fuch Propofals as may be brought before 
them i and that, in a very Ihort Time, they would 
be enabled to propofe fuch Remedies to the Ho- 
nourable Houfe of Commons, and alfo to fettle 
fuch a Plan of Operation, as would cfFeftuaily 
fccure our Colonies on the Continent of America 
from the barbarous Cruelties daily committed by 
the French and Indians, and from the Incroach- 
nients of all our Enemies. "•• • ' "«' 


F I N I S. 


Lately Publijhed, 

Sold ^;r R . B A L D w I N, at the Rofe, in Pater- 
Nofter-Row, and J. Wilkie, behind the 
Chapter-Houfe, in St. Paul's Church-yard. 

I. /^ E N E R A L Thoughts on the Con- 
Vj ftrudion, Ufe and Abufe of thp great Of- 
fices : With a View to fome furthti Difcourfes 
on the fame Subjedl. Price 6d. 

II. The Wifdom and Policy of the French in Con- 
ftrufting their great Offices fo, as bed to anfwer 
the Purpofes of extending their Trade and Com- 
merce, and enlarging their Foreign Settlements: 
"With fome Obfcrvations in Relation to the Dif- 
putes now fubfifting between the Englijh and 
French Colonies in America. Price is. 6d. 

III. A Mifcellaneous Eflay concerning the Courfes 
purfued by Great Britain in the Affairs of her 
Colonies: With fome Obfervations on the great 
Importance of our Settlements in America^ and 
the Trade thereof. Price is. 6d. 

IV. The Fatal Confequences of the Want of Syflem 
in the Condudt of publick Affairs. Price i s.